“That night, employing just a few bombers, the British came close to a success which would have been greater than anything they had achieved hitherto with a commitment of thousands of bombers.”
– Albert Speer
16 May. All of we Brits of a certain age remember the film. Richard Todd coolly leading his elite squadron of Lancaster bombers into attack the Mohne, Eder and Sorpe dams. British stiff-upper lip and brilliant “bouncing bomb” technology combining against the backdrop of a stirring and evocative 1950s soundtrack to deal the Nazis a crippling blow. Eighty years ago today the Dambusters of 617 Squadron undertook the actual “dams raid” and in spite of many politically correct attempts to ‘revise’ history the attack remains one of the most stunning precision air strikes in military history.
The facts alone speak for themselves. Twenty-four year old Wing Commander Guy Gibson VC, DSO (Bar), DFC (Bar), RAF, a veteran of over 170 missions, led the 19 Lancaster Mark IIIs in his bomber G for George. His ‘Lancs’ were armed with Professor Barnes Wallace’s amazing Upkeep ‘mine’which was designed to bounce across the lakes behind the German dams before rolling down the dam face and then explode. A ‘mine’ inspired by pebbles skipping across a pond.
Early in the morning of 17 May the Mohne and Eder dams were breached and water catastrophically-flooding the Ruhr and Eder valleys. Some 1600 people were killed and many factories were destroyed or damaged together with two hydro-electric plants. Of the 133 airmen who took part in the raid 53 were killed. This was World War Two – total war.
Strangely the raid has touched me personally. A few years ago I had the honour to visit 617 “Dambusters” Squadron at RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland in which I was invited into the cockpit of a Tornado figther-bomber. Ironically, eighty years ago had I been sitting at this seat at around 0030 hours the 9 aircraft of Formation One would have roared over my house in Alphen no more than 25 metres (80 feet) above my head with the whole village awakened by the low-flying cacophony of 36 Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.
Formation Three was comprised of two Lancasters which formed a mobile reserve one of which (S for Sugar) was shot up by German flak over Molenschot some five kilometres from here and then crashed onto what was then a German air defence base at Gilze-Rijen just up the road. My wife and I visited the graves of Canadian Pilot Officer Lewis Burpee and his crew which are interred in the Bergen-op-Zoom British-Canadian Commowealth War Grave.
Although not onnected with the dams raid my wife and I also had the very real pleasure of lunch with Group Captain Steve Reeves and his wife Michelle at RAF Leeming. This was following our discovery of another crash site close to our house where an RCAF Halifax II (JD363) of 429 Squadron RCAF had crashed at Bolk, just over the border in Belgium. Piloted by Flight Sergeant Graham Howard, the Halifax crashed in October 1943 with the loss of all seven members of its Canadian and British crew. The site has been lovingly marked and preserved by local people and we had the honour to present my wife’s photograph of the monument to Group Captain Reeves at RAF Leeming. What moved me to take this photograph back to Leeming was the fact that a year earlier I had had the honour to address senior RAF personnel at Leeming. Movingly, I ate my meals in the same mess (dining room) as the men of JD363 shortly before they left on their final mission.
So what was the impact of the dams raid. There have been many attempts to downplay the impact of the raid. Certainly, the Germans moved quickly to repair the damage and by the following September the lakes were once again filling, although the dams never achieved full capacity until the following year. However, slave labour had to be diverted from the building of the Atlantic Wall and this meant that by June 1944 and D-Day the defences were weaker than they would otherwise have been. Moreover, the British had proven they could undertake precision strike missions and armed with new bombs designed by Barnes Wallace ‘617’ went onto destroy critical bridges and tunnels before sinking the German battleship “Tirpitz” in November 1944.
Time of course moves on and I will soon have the honour of leading a NATO-backed meeting at Wilton Park with friends from the Luftwaffe. That is, course, as it should be, and I am sure the men of 617 Squadron in May 1943 would have heartily approved.
Good show, chaps!
“Apres nous le deluge”.